Wednesday, March 18, 2020
World War I - Middle East and Africa Campaigns As World War I descended across Europe in August 1914, it also saw fighting erupt across the colonial empires of the belligerents. These conflicts typically involved smaller forces and with one exception resulted in the defeat and capture of Germanys colonies. Also, as the fighting on the Western Front stagnated in to trench warfare, the Allies sought secondary theaters for striking at the Central Powers. Many of these targeted the weakened Ottoman Empire and saw the spread of fighting to Egypt and the Middle East. In the Balkans, Serbia, who had played a key role in starting of the conflict, was ultimately overwhelmed leading to a new front in Greece. War Comes to the Colonies Formed in early 1871, Germany was a later comer to the competition for empire. As a result, the new nation was forced to direct its colonial efforts towards the less preferred parts of Africa and the islands of the Pacific. While German merchants began operations in Togo, Kamerun (Cameroon), South-West Africa (Namibia), and East Africa (Tanzania), others were planting colonies in Papua, Samoa, as well as the Caroline, Marshall, Solomon, Mariana, and Bismarck Islands. In addition, the port of Tsingtao was taken from the Chinese in 1897. With the outbreak of war in Europe, Japan elected to declare war on Germany citing its obligations under the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of 1911. Moving quickly, Japanese troops seized the Marianas, Marshalls, and Carolines. Transferred to Japan after the war, these islands became a key part of its defensive ring during World War II. While the islands were being captured, a 50,000-man force was dispatched to Tsingtao. Here they conducted a classic siege with the aid of British forces and took the port on November 7, 1914. Far to the south, Australian and New Zealand forces captured Papua and Samoa. Battling for Africa While the German position in the Pacific was quickly swept away, their forces in Africa mounted a more vigorous defense. Though Togo was swiftly taken on August 27, British and French forces encountered difficulties in Kamerun. Though possessing greater numbers, the Allies were hampered by distance, topography, and climate. While initial efforts to capture the colony failed, a second campaign took the capital at Douala on September 27. Delayed by weather and enemy resistance, the final German outpost at Mora was not taken until February 1916. In South-West Africa, British efforts were slowed by the need to put down a Boer revolt before crossing the border from South Africa. Attacking in January 1915, South African forces advanced in four columns on the German capital at Windhoek. Taking the town on May 12, 1915, they compelled the colonys unconditional surrender two months later. The Last Holdout Only in German East Africa was the war to last the duration. Though the governors of East Africa and British Kenya wished to observe a pre-war understanding exempting Africa from hostilities, those within their borders clamored for war. Leading the German Schutztruppe (colonial defense force) was Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. A veteran imperial campaigner, Lettow-Vorbeck embarked on a remarkable campaign which saw him repeatedly defeat larger Allied forces. Utilizing African soldiers known as askiris, his command lived off the land and conducted an ongoing guerilla campaign. Tying down increasingly large numbers of British troops, Lettow-Vorbeck suffered several reverses in 1917 and 1918, but was never captured. The remnants of his command finally surrendered after the armistice on November 23, 1918, and Lettow-Vorbeck returned to Germany a hero. The Sick Man at War On August 2, 1914, the Ottoman Empire, long known as the Sick Man of Europe for its declining power, concluded an alliance with Germany against Russia. Long courted by Germany, the Ottomans had worked to re-equip their army with German weapons and used the Kaisers military advisors. Utilizing the German battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau, both of which had been transferred to Ottoman control after escaping British pursuers in the Mediterranean, Minister of War Enver Pasha ordered naval attacks against Russian ports on October 29. As a result, Russia declared war on November 1, followed by Britain and France four days later. With the beginning of hostilities, General Otto Liman von Sanders, Ever Pashas chief German advisor, expected the Ottomans to attack north into the Ukrainian plains. Instead, Ever Pasha elected to assault Russia through the mountains of the Caucasus. In this area the Russians advanced first gaining ground as the Ottoman commanders did not wish to attack in the severe winter weather. Angered, Ever Pasha took direct control and was badly defeated in the Battle of Sarikamis in December 1914/January 1915. To the south, the British, concerned about ensuring the Royal Navys access to Persian oil, landed the 6th Indian Division at Basra on November 7. Taking the city, it advanced to secure Qurna. The Gallipoli Campaign Contemplating the Ottoman entry into the war, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill developed a plan for attacking the Dardanelles. Using the ships of the Royal Navy, Churchill believed, partially due to faulty intelligence, that the straits could be forced, opening the way for a direct assault on Constantinople. Approved, the Royal Navy had three attacks on the straits turned back in February and early March 1915. A massive assault on March 18 also failed with the loss of three older battleships. Unable to penetrate the Dardanelles due to Turkish mines and artillery, the decision was made to land troops on the Gallipoli Peninsula to remove the threat (Map). Entrusted to General Sir Ian Hamilton, the operation called for landings at Helles and farther north at Gaba Tepe. While the troops at Helles were to push north, the Australia and New Zealand Army Corps was to push east and prevent the retreat of the Turkish defenders. Going ashore on April 25, Allied forces took heavy losses and failed to achieve their objectives. Battling on Gallipolis mountainous terrain, Turkish forces under Mustafa Kemal held the line and fighting stalemated into trench warfare. On August 6, a third landing at Sulva Bay was also contained by the Turks. After a failed offensive in August, fighting quieted as the British debated strategy (Map). Seeing no other recourse, the decision was made to evacuate Gallipoli and the last Allied troops departed on January 9, 1916. Mesopotamia Campaign In Mesopotamia, British forces successfully repelled an Ottoman attack at Shaiba on April 12, 1915. Having been reinforced, the British commander, General Sir John Nixon, ordered Major General Charles Townshend to advance up the Tigris River to Kut and, if possible, Baghdad. Reaching Ctesiphon, Townshend encountered an Ottoman force under Nureddin Pasha on November 22. After five days of inconclusive fighting, both sides withdrew. Retreating to Kut-al-Amara, Townshend was followed by Nureddin Pasha who laid siege to the British force on December 7. Several attempts were made to lift the siege in early 1916 with no success and Townshend surrendered on April 29 (Map). Unwilling to accept defeat, the British dispatched Lieutenant General Sir Fredrick Maude to retrieve the situation. Reorganizing and reinforcing his command, Maude began a methodical offensive up the Tigris on December 13, 1916. Repeatedly outmaneuvering the Ottomans, he retook Kut and pressed towards Baghdad. Defeating Ottoman forces along the Diyala River, Maude captured Baghdad on March 11, 1917. Maude then halted in the city to reorganize his supply lines and avoid the summer heat. Dying of cholera in November, he was replaced by General Sir William Marshall. With troops being diverted from his command to expand operations elsewhere, Marshall slowly pushed towards to the Ottoman base at Mosul. Advancing towards the city, it was finally occupied on November 14, 1918, two weeks after the Armistice of Mudros ended hostilities. Defense of the Suez Canal As Ottoman forces campaigned in the Caucasus and Mesopotamia, they also began moving to strike at the Suez Canal. Closed by the British to enemy traffic at the start of the war, the canal was a key line of strategic communication for the Allies. Though Egypt was still technically part of the Ottoman Empire, it had been under British administration since 1882 and was rapidly filling with British and Commonwealth troops. Moving through the desert wastes of the Sinai Peninsula, Turkish troops under General Ahmed Cemal and his German chief of staff Franz Kress von Kressenstein attacked the canal area on February 2, 1915. Alerted to their approach, British forces drove off the attackers after two days of fighting. Though a victory, the threat to the canal forced the British to leave a stronger garrison in Egypt than intended. Into the Sinai For over a year the Suez front remained quiet as fighting raged at Gallipoli and in Mesopotamia. In the summer of 1916, von Kressenstein made another attempt on the canal. Advancing across the Sinai, he met a well-prepared British defense led by General Sir Archibald Murray. In the resultingÃ Battle of RomaniÃ on August 3-5, the British forced the Turks to retreat. Going over the offensive, the British pushed across Sinai, building a railroad and water pipeline as they went. Winning battles atÃ MagdhabaÃ andÃ Rafa, they were ultimately stopped by the Turks at the First Battle of Gaza in March 1917 (Map). When a second attempt to take the city failed in April, Murray was sacked in favor of General Sir Edmund Allenby. Palestine Reorganizing his command, Allenby commenced theÃ Third Battle of GazaÃ on October 31. Flanking the Turkish line at Beersheba, he won decisive victory. On Allenbys flank were the Arab forces guided byÃ Major T.E. LawrenceÃ (Lawrence of Arabia) who had previously captured the port of Aqaba. Dispatched to Arabia in 1916, Lawrence successfully worked to foment unrest among the Arabs who then revolted against Ottoman rule. With the Ottomans in retreat, Allenby rapidly pushed north, taking Jerusalem on December 9 (Map). Thought the British wished to deliver a death blow to the Ottomans in early 1918, their plans were undone by the beginning of the GermanÃ Spring OffensivesÃ on the Western Front. The bulk of Allenbys veteran troops were transferred west to aid in blunting the German assault. As a result, much of the spring and summer was consumed rebuilding his forces from newly recruited troops. Ordering the Arabs to harass the Ottoman rear, Allenby opened theÃ Battle of MegiddoÃ on September 19. Shattering an Ottoman army under von Sanders, Allenbys men rapidly advanced and captured Damascus on October 1. Though their southern forces had been destroyed, the government in Constantinople refused to surrender and continued the fight elsewhere. Fire in the Mountains In the wake of the victory at Sarikamis, command of Russian forces in the Caucasus was given to General Nikolai Yudenich. Pausing to reorganize his forces, he embarked on an offensive in May 1915. This was aided by an Armenian revolt at Van which had erupted the previous month. While one wing of the attack succeeded in relieving Van, the other was halted after advancing through the Tortum Valley towards Erzurum. Exploiting the success at Van and with Armenian guerillas striking the enemy rear, Russian troops secured Manzikert on May 11. Due to the Armenian activity, the Ottoman government passed the Tehcir Law calling for the forced relocation of Armenians from the area. Subsequent Russian efforts during the summer were fruitless and Yudenich took the fall to rest and reinforce. In January, Yudenich returned to the attack winning the Battle of Koprukoy and driving on Erzurum. Taking the city in March, Russian forces captured Trabzon the following month and began pushing south towards Bitlis. Pressing on, both Bitlis and Mush were taken. These gains were short-lived as Ottoman forces under Mustafa Kemal recaptured both later that summer. The lines stabilized through the fall as both sides recuperated from the campaigning. Though the Russian command wished to renew the assault in 1917, social and political unrest at home prevented this. With the outbreak of the Russian Revolution, Russian forces began withdrawing on the Caucasus front and eventually evaporated away. Peace was achieved through theÃ Treaty of Brest-LitovskÃ in which Russia ceded territory to the Ottomans. The Fall of Serbia While fighting raged on the major fronts of the war in 1915, most of the year was relatively quiet in Serbia. Having successfully fended off an Austro-Hungarian invasion in late-1914, Serbia desperately worked to rebuild its battered army though it lacked the manpower to do so effectively. Serbias situation changed dramatically late in the year when following Allied defeats at Gallipoli and Gorlice-Tarnow, Bulgaria joined the Central Powers and mobilized for war on September 21. On October 7, German and Austro-Hungarian forces renewed the assault on Serbia with Bulgaria attacking four days later. Badly outnumbered and under pressure from two directions, the Serbian army was forced to retreat. Falling back to the southwest, the Serbian army conducted a long march to Albania but remained intact (Map). Having anticipated the invasion, the Serbs had begged for the Allies to send aid. Developments in Greece Due to variety of factors, this could only be routed through the neutral Greek port of Salonika. While proposals for opening a secondary front at Salonika had been discussed by the Allied high command earlier in the war, they had been dismissed as a waste of resources. This view changed on September 21 when Greek Prime Minister Eleutherios Venizelos advised the British and French that if they sent 150,000 men to Salonika, he could bring Greece into the war on the Allied side. Though quickly dismissed by the pro-German King Constantine, Venizelos plan led to the arrival of Allied troops at Salonika on October 5. Led by French General Maurice Sarrail, this force was able to provide little aid to the retreating Serbians The Macedonian Front As the Serbian army was evacuated to Corfu, Austrian forces occupied much of Italian-controlled Albania. Believing the war in the region lost, the British expressed a desire to withdraw their troops from Salonika. This met with protests from the French and the British unwillingly remained. Building a massive fortified camp around the port, the Allies were soon joined by the remnants of the Serbian army. In Albania, an Italian force was landed in the south and made gains in the country south of Lake Ostrovo. Expanding the front out from Salonika, the Allies held a small German-Bulgarian offensive in August and counterattacked on September 12. Achieving some gains, Kaymakchalan and Monastir were both taken (Map). As Bulgarian troops crossed the Greek border into Eastern Macedonia, Venizelos and officers from the Greek Army launched a coup against the king. This resulted in a royalist government in Athens and a Venizelist government at Salonika which controlled much of northern Greece. Offensives in Macedonia Idle through much of 1917, SarrailsÃ Armee d OrientÃ took control of all of Thessaly and occupied the Isthmus of Corinth. These actions led to the exile of the king on June 14 and united the country under Venizelos who mobilized the army to support the Allies. In May 18, General Adolphe Guillaumat, who had replaced Sarrail, attacked and captured Skra-di-Legen. Recalled to aid in stopping the German Spring Offensives, he was replaced with General Franchet dEsperey. Wishing to attack, dEsperey opened the Battle of Dobro Pole on September 14 (Map). Largely facing Bulgarian troops whose morale was low, the Allies made swift gains though the British took heavy losses at Doiran. By September 19, the Bulgarians were in full retreat. On September 30, the day after the fall of Skopje and under internal pressure, the Bulgarians were granted the Armistice of Solun which took them out of the war. While dEsperey pushed north and over the Danube, British forces turned east to attack an undefended Constantinople. With British troops approaching the city, the Ottomans signed the Armistice of Mudros on October 26. Poised to strike into the Hungarian heartland, dEsperey was approached by Count Krolyi, the head of the Hungarian government, about the terms for an armistice. Traveling to Belgrade, Krolyi signed an armistice on November 10.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Biography of William Shakespeare, Famous Playwright William Shakespeare (April 23, 1564Ã¢â¬âApril 23, 1616) wrote at least 37 plays and 154 sonnets, which are considered among the most important and enduring ever written. Although the plays have captured the imagination of theatergoers for centuries, some historians claim that Shakespeare didnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually write them. Amazingly, little is known about ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Even though he is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous and popular playwright, historians have had to fill in the gaps between the handful of surviving records from Elizabethan times. Fast Facts: William Shakespeare Known For: One of historys most famous playwrights, who wrote at least 37 plays, which are still studied and performed to this day, as well as 154 sonnets, which are also highly regardedAlso Known As: The BardBorn: April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon,Ã EnglandParents: John Shakespeare, Mary ArdenDied: April 23, 1616 in Stratford-upon-AvonPublished Works: Romeo and Juliet (1594Ã¢â¬â1595), A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream (1595Ã¢â¬â1596), Much Ado About Nothing (1598Ã¢â¬â1599), Henry V (1598Ã¢â¬â1599), Hamlet 1600Ã¢â¬â1601, King Lear (1605Ã¢â¬â1606), Macbeth ( 1605Ã¢â¬â1606), The Tempest (1611Ã¢â¬â1612)Awards and Honors: After Shakespeares death, a funerary monument was erected to honor him at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, where he is buried. It depicts a half-effigy of The Bard in the act of writing. Numerous statues and monuments have been erected around the world to honor the playwright.Spouse: Anne Hathaway (m.Ã Nov. 28, 1582Ã¢â¬âApril 23, 1616)Children: Susanna, Judith and Hamnet (twins)Notable Quote: All the worlds a stage, and all the men and women merely players: they have their exits and their entrances; and one man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages. Early Years Shakespeare was probably born on April 23, 1564, but this date is an educated guess because we only have a record of his baptism three days later. His parents, John Shakespeare and Mary Arden, were successful townsfolk who moved to a large house in Henley Street, Stratford-upon-Avon, from the surrounding villages. His father became a wealthy town official and his mother was from an important, respected family. It is widely assumed that Shakespeare attended the local grammar school where he would have studied Latin, Greek, and classical literature. His early education must have made a huge impact on him because many of his plots draw on the classics. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Family At age 18, on November 28, 1582, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway from Shottery, who was already pregnant with their first daughter. The wedding would have been arranged quickly to avoid the shame of having a child born out of wedlock. Shakespeare fathered three children, Susanna, born in May 1583 but conceived out of wedlock, and Judith and Hamnet, twins who were born in February 1585. Hamnet died in 1596 at age 11. Shakespeare was devastated by the death of his only son, and it is argued that Hamlet, written four years later, is evidence of this. Theater Career At some point in the late 1580s, Shakespeare made the four-day ride to London, and by 1592 had established himself as a writer. In 1594, an event occurred that changed the course of literary history: Shakespeare joined Richard BurbageÃ¢â¬â¢s acting company and became its chief playwright for the next two decades. Here, Shakespeare was able to hone his craft, writing for a regular group of performers. Shakespeare also worked as an actor in the theater company, although the lead roles were always reserved for Burbage himself. The company became very successful and often performed in front of the Queen of England, Elizabeth I. In 1603, James I ascended the throne and granted his royal patronage to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s company, which became known as The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Men. Shakespeare the Gentleman Like his father, Shakespeare had excellent business sense. He bought the largest house in Stratford-upon-Avon by 1597, owned shares in the Globe Theater,Ã and profited from some real estate deals near Stratford-upon-Avon in 1605. Before long, Shakespeare officially became a gentleman, partly due to his own wealth and partly due to inheriting a coat of arms from his father who died in 1601. Later Years and Death Shakespeare retired to Stratford in 1611 and lived comfortably off his wealth for the rest of his life. In his will, he bequeathed most of his properties to Susanna, his eldest daughter, and some actors from The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Men. Famously, he left his wife his Ã¢â¬Å"second-best bedÃ¢â¬ before he died on April 23, 1616. (This date is an educated guess because we only have a record of his burial two days later). If you visit Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, you can still view his grave and read his epitaph engraved into the stone: Good friend, for Jesus sake forbearTo dig the dust enclosed here.Blessed be the man that spares these stones,And cursed be he that moves my bones. Legacy More than 400 years after his death, Shakespeares plays and sonnets still hold a special place in theaters, libraries, and schools around the world. His plays and sonnets have been performed in nearly every major language on every continent, notes Greg Timmons writing on Biography.com. In addition to the legacy of his plays and sonnets, many of the words and phrases Shakespeare created infuse dictionaries today and are embedded in modern English, including these sayings from some of his plays: All that glitters isnt gold (The Merchant of Venice)Alls well that ends well (Alls Well that Ends Well)To be-all and the end-all (Macbeth)Break the ice (The Taming of the Shrew)We have seen better days (As You Like It)Brave new world (The Tempest)Brevity is the soul of wit (Hamlet)Cruel to be kind (Hamlet)Its Greek to me (Julius Caesar)Something wicked this way comes (Macbeth)Star-crossed lovers (Romeo and Juliet)Wild-goose chase (Romeo and Juliet)The world is my oyster (The Merry Wives of Windsor) Few writers, poets, and playwrights- and Shakespeare was all three- have had the influence on culture and learning that Shakespeare has. With luck, his plays and sonnets may still be revered and studied four centuries from now. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"IWonder - William Shakespeare: The Life and Legacy of Englands Bard.Ã¢â¬ Ã BBC.Ã¢â¬Å"Shakespeares Words Phrases.Ã¢â¬ Ã Shakespeare Birthplace Trust.Timmons, Greg. Ã¢â¬Å"William Shakespeares 400th Anniversary: The Life Legacy of The Bard.Ã¢â¬ Ã Biography.com, AE Networks Television, 2 Nov. 2018.Ã¢â¬Å"Who Was William Shakespeare? Everything You Need to Know.Ã¢â¬ Ã Childhood, Life Achievements Timeline, thefamouspeople.com.Ã¢â¬Å"William Shakespeare Quotes.Ã¢â¬ Ã BrainyQuote, Xplore.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Quantitative Easing - Essay Example Quantitative easing has policies that when well implemented can result to reduction of systematic risks and improve market confidence. Consequently, it can contribute to higher inflation than desired in case policy makers overestimate the amount of easing required (Gibbons, 2011:224). This essay will seek to explain the extent in which the practice of quantitative easing threatens the independence of policymakers. Quantitative easing is another bank bailout. Money created in form of promissory notes or bonds and is available to only those banks that have received the quantitative easing (Biefang-FrisanchoMariscal, and Howells, 2011:98). When the rate of interests is high, there is an alternative method of influencing the price of money circulating in the economy. This alternate solution is quantitative easing whose aim is to lower the rates of interests affecting companies and households where the central bank takes the most important step, QE, by generating new money for use in an e conomy. Therefore, quantitative easing, dubbed printing money, assumes the definition of unconventional monetary policy acquired by the central banks in view of stimulating the economy at times when the conventional monetary policy fails. ... 2012). These unconventional measures had principle element in the United Kingdom whereby, their policy was to purchase assets with finances from the central bank, in short, quantitative easing (Howells and Hussein, 1997:378). Between March 2009 and January 2010, there were more than 200 billion Euros purchases of assets. Overwhelmingly, this amount comprised of government securities that ended up representing 14 percent of the annual Gross Domestic Product (Howells, 2010:314). The motivation and implementation of these central banksÃ¢â¬â¢ asset purchase had significant economical impacts and according to the Bank of England, quantitative easing made considerable uncertainty regarding magnitudes of the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s financial market (Douglas, 2011). Recently, the growth of broad money slowed dramatically within the economy of the United Kingdom since when recession commenced. Indicators of the recession were in part things like reduced borrowing by households and companies. Presumably , the Bank of England had to practice quantitative easing on behalf of Monetary Policy Committee in order to offset the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economy from this weakness (Joyce, 2010). This practice boosted huge sums of money holdings into the economy. However, it threatened the independence of the policymakers since there is documented evidence from the monetary data depicted that the asset purchase program led to an increase in prices of assets (Biefang-FrisanchoMariscal, and Howells 2011:102). In addition, it ultimately contributed to increase in nominal demand in the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economy making other evidence from other financial markets corroborative (Ellis, 2009:31). In 2009, the Monetary Policy Committee made a stern decision of making the economy of the United Kingdom an elaborate market with
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Leader Traits, Power, and Corruption - Essay Example What happened at Enron as well as at WorldCom not only questioned the role of corporate governance and ethics within organizations but it also put on test the very qualities of the leadership because in all those episodes of corporate failures, leadership was the main culprit. Leaders in those organizations wielded powers entrusted to them in ways which may not be considered as ethical in any sense. Leadership is a very complex process and requires different approaches to deal with different situations as they arise. One of the basic characteristics of leadership is the fact that it succeed in wielding power which others may find hard to exercise. The sources and means of various powers entrusted to leadership are various however what is critical is the facts that by exercising such powers leaders aim to achieve something which others cannot achieve. The gradual shift from bureaucracy to more flexible and so called radix organizations, the role of leadership has further become complicated and somewhat more fluid and demanding in nature. (Schneider, 2002). Since leadership is often defined as the use of "noncoercive influence" in order to accomplish different tasks (Jago, 1982) therefore in fluid organizations with much emphasis on delegation, exercising powers is considered as a delicate art. This paper will present an analysis of the different powers leaders within organizations use as well as exploring how these powers can be exercised to avoid operational, administrative as well as ethical problems faced by the organizations. Leadership Sources of Power There are different sources of powers which a leader can exercise within an organization to achieve the desired objectives and strategic aims. Since, leadership is a process where non-coercive influence is used therefore it is often assumed that while exercising such powers, leaders always do it in the best interest of the organization. Following are the different sources of power for leaders: Expert Power The source of this power is the expertise of the leader. If leader is expert in his or her field of business than the wielding of this power allow a leader to exercise certain degree of influence. This power is therefore based on an individual leader's competence and expertise in certain areas of work i.e. Bill Gates being the CEO as well as Chief Software Architect of Microsoft. Legitimate Power The source of this power is individual's position within an organization. By having a certain position, status, leaders derive this power to achieve leader-follower behavior because others follow them due to their legitimate power within an organization. Reward Power The source of this power is the leader's ability to reward any behavior. Due to this, most of the employees within an organization tend to follow their leaders and obey them because leaders exercise the power of rewarding them. This power is also one of the most important in the sense that it may allow collusion of employees/managers with the leaders to engage into unethical business practices. Coercive Power Since leaders due to their position within the organization control both rewards as well as punishments therefore the source of coercive power is when the leader control the punishment i.e. he or she has the power and ability to fire, fine, punish etc any employee. Coercive power
Friday, January 24, 2020
The Roaring Twenties Americans, in the years following the end of World War I found themselves in an era, where the people simply wished to detach themselves from the troubles of Europeans and the rest of the world. During the years of the Twenties, the economy was prosperous, there was widespread social reform, new aspects of culture were established, and people found better ways to improve their lifestyle and enjoy life. The 1920's exemplified the changing attitudes of American's toward foreign relations, society, and leisure activities. Following the end of World War I, many Americans demanded that the United States stay out of European affairs in the future. The United States Senate even refused to accept the Treaty of Versailles which officially ended World War I and provided for the establishment of the League of Nations. The Senate chose to refuse the Treaty in the fear that it could result in the involvement of the United States in future European wars. Americans simply did not wish to deal with, nor tolerate the problems of Europe and abroad. There were many problems running rampant throughout the country following the conclusion of the war. One of the greatest problems which arose was the Red Scare which was seen as an international communist conspiracy that was blamed for various protest movements and union activities in 1919 and 1920. The Red Scare was touched off by a national distrust of foreigners. Many Americas also kept a close eye on the increasing activities of the Klu Klux Klan who were terrorizing foreigners, blacks, Jews and Roman Catholics. Once Americans put the war behind them, they were able to forget the problems of European affairs, and focus on the country, their town, and themselves. Americans found themselves in a period of reform, both socially and culturally. Many feared that morality had crumbled completely. Before World War I, women wore their hair long, had ankle length dresses, and long cotton stockings. In the twenties, they wore short, tight dresses, and rolled their silk stockings down to their knees. They wore flashy lipstick and other cosmetics. Eventually, women were even granted the right to vote with the passing of the 19th Amendment. It was up to this time period that women were not seen as an important aspect in American society. As if rebelling from the previous position of practically non-existence, women changed their clothing, their fashion, and even cut their hair shorter into bobs which were very similar to the style of men.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
I will be conducting my research paper Singapore Political, Economic, and Social Organization. The method that I will use to gather my information will be ethnology. Ethnology is Comparative study of cultures with the aim of presenting analytical generalizations within the context of that society. Singapore is a postindustrial society that has a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing Constitution. Singapore officially gaining sovereignty in 1965, its politics has been dominated by the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Action Party (PAP). Singapore, under the leadership of the PAP, possesses a distinct political culture: authoritarian, pragmatic, rational and legalistic. PAP leadership consisted of English lawyers and Chinese pro-communist trade union leaders. Unlike the western country (United States) that is run by politicians, Singapore is not run by politicians, but by a social system that where power is gained through skills, performances, and loyalty to the nation and not by politicianÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. Singapore as has supremacy of government-controlled companies not like their western country counterparts. The reason why PAP stayed in power is due to popular support won by economic growth. Singapore raised public awareness, and stimulates public interest and debate, in economic issues is a factor of economic growth. Economic performance of Singapore depends on its mode of economic organization, natural resources, climate, and history. Singapore witnessed the unexpected economic development of vast potential for tin, rubber, oil palm, and tobacco, for Singapore is one of the largest ports in the world. Singapore is a postindustrial society where the government has invested billions in infrastructure and aims to recruit the best researchers in all modern fields of technological endeavor (Nowak & Laird, 2010). This brought immigrate from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia to Singapore for work. By 2006, there were approximately 580,000 lowerÃ¢â¬âskilled foreign workers and 90,000 skilled foreign workers in Singapore (Yeoh, 2007). In addition, 60 percent of Singapore's factory workers are Malaysian citizens, who cross the shared border daily (Nowak & Laird, 2010). Unlike the westerner country, Singapore required that workers must take a pregnancy test and STD test regularly. Again Singapore isnÃ¢â¬â¢t like their westerner counterparts when it comes to unemployment. Unemployed workers must return to their home country after a short period of job hunting.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
From Innocence to Adulthood in The Catcher in the Rye Adolescence is a time of existence in two worlds. One world having the desire to be in the adult world, which is filled with all the unknown wonders of the world. The other world is the world of childhood which is comfortable and protected from all the impurities in the world. This sort of tug of war between the two worlds is not only mentally imposed on a being, but physically, socially, and morally as well. With all the mentioned above, often times an adult will discourage an action of an adolescent by saying they are too old to a act a certain way, and then will turn around and say they are too young to do something, like go out lateÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Holden tries to give the illusion that he is older because when he orders the drink, he Orders it fast as possible, because if you hem and haw they think you are under 21 and wont sell you intoxicating liquor. This is the classic example of adolescence when one attempts to act older than his or her age when attempting to obtain alcohol. Up until the age of 21, all young adults want to give the illusion they are older than they are in hopes of obtaining special adult privileges, such as drinking alcohol, smoking, etc. However Holdens failed attempts forces him to realize that his act is fooling no one other than himself. Such an example can be seen when one goes to college bars and can see all the adults that are hanging out there. The people who are there are not fooling anyone as well. Sex is often the most complicated adult subjects, even for adults to understand themselves. The act of sex itself can be talked about immensely, as done in locker rooms or with friends, almost to the point where one could believe in the tales. However the act itself cannot be faked and innocence of such things are quite apparent when the situations do arise. The saying one can talk the talk, but cannot walk the walk describes this sort of situation perfectly. Holdens first experience with a woman who heShow MoreRelatedCatcher in the Rye vs Frankenstein Novel Study Essay1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIndependent Novel Study In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, innocence cannot be preserved forever. As humans age, they lose their innocence due to the corruption that exists in society. This is demonstrated in the two novels, Catcher in the Rye and Frankenstein. The two authors, J.D. Salinger and Mary Shelley prove this statement through their use of various literary devices. Key characters in both novels- Holden and the creature- learn through personal experiences that innocence cannot, in fact, be preserved foreverRead MoreThe Innocence of Childhood in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople, this transition from youthfulness to maturity can be much more difficult than for others. These people often try to hold on to their childhood as long as they can. Unfortunately, life is not so simple. One cannot spend their entire life running from the responsibilities and hardships of adulthood because they will eventually have to accept the fact that they have a role in society that they mus t fulfill as a responsible, mature individual. The novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ by J.D. Salinger followsRead MoreCatcher In The Rye Title Essay1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe title of the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ , plays a significant role throughout the book as it has a substantial connection to HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s story. This title greatly allows for the main character, Holden Caulfield, to express his feelings towards life and towards human nature. Holden can see that the world he now lives in as it is becoming filled with corrupted people and minds. He believes the children are ruined by the ribald behavior of the older generations around them and as he shows the readerRead MoreThe Catcher In The Rye Analysis1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOne must inevitably confront the daunting face of adulthood. In J. D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger depicts the disheartening journey from adolescence to adulthood that Holden Caulfield endures. Alth ough holden seeks the freedoms that mark adulthood, he has yet to take up the role of a truly mature citizen as the society conforming nature of those adults disgust him, leading him to his gradual mental decline. J. D. Salinger uses the immature character of Holden Caulfield as a meansRead MoreCatcher In The Rye Analysis1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Catcher in the Rye, by J. D. Salinger, Holden embodies an anxious, confused teenager who canÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out what his future will hold Ã¢â¬â usually stories like this involve some sort of growth, and result in a coming of age. Ironically, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s only purpose is to resist maturity; throughout the book he grows and changes minimally, as a result of little to no success. Stuck in the middle of innocence and maturity, he is not able to apply himself to accomplish anything. In The Catcher in the Rye, SalingerRead MoreThe Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprotagonist of J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s clas sic coming of age tale The Catcher in the Rye, entices readers through his hyper-critical scrutinization of the post-war consumer world. The novel itself is acclaimed to be quite autobiographical; the similarities between Salinger and Holden are numerous. Holden is an avid critic of materialistic American ideals, and he aims to preserve innocence in others, and to save himself from falling into the land of adulthood. After failing out of prep school, Holden retires toRead MoreLoss Of Innocence In Catcher In The Rye1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJustin Hwang Ms. Lydia Wells English 9 10/24/17 Loneliness and Phoniness: Loss of Innocence in SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Catcher in the Rye Loss of innocence is one of the major elements of The Catcher in the Rye that make the novel so renowned. The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is about an adolescent named Holden who wanders around New York City after being kicked out of a prestigious boarding school in eastern Pennsylvania. While learning more about himself and the adult world, he experiences alcohol,Read MoreCatcher in the Rye1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInnocence, Compassion, and some ÃâCrazy Cliff A novel, which has gained literary recognition worldwide, scrutiny to the point of censorship and has established a following among adolescents, The Catcher in the Rye is in its entirety a unique connotation of the preservation of innocence and the pursuit of compassion. With certain elegance the writer J.D. Salinger, substantiates the growth and perils, which lie between childhood and adulthood. Embellishing the differentiation between innocence andRead MoreAmerican Literature And Ways They Cultivate Their Own Met hods Of Survival Within Their Societies1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessocieties. A common outsider to which he refers is the lonely adolescent. As a character straddling the cusp of childhood and adulthood, the lonely adolescent navigates through a loss of innocence and disenchantment to come to terms with his own male identity, as well as establish his role in society and find purpose as an adult. J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Catcher in the Rye follows anti-hero Holden Caulfield through a seemingly innocuous trip in New York City. Throughout his journey, Holden triesRead MorePreservation of Innocence In The Catcher in the Rye Essay545 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe reader. In The Catcher in the Rye, there are several themes that can be found in the words and actions of the narrator, Holden Caulfield. The dominating theme in this novel is the preservation of innocence, especially of children. We can see this throughout the novel, as Holden strives to preserve innocence in himself and others. In The Catcher in the Rye, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook in life is either the innocence of childhood or the cruelty of adulthood. He believes that the innocence of childhood is